Cytidinediphosphocholine treatment to decrease traumatic brain injury-induced hippocampal neuronal death, cortical contusion volume, and neurological dysfunction in rats
Dempsey RJ, Raghavendra Rao VL.
Department of Neurological Surgery,
University of Wisconsin,
Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.
J Neurosurg. 2003 Apr;98(4):867-73


OBJECT: In previous studies at their laboratory the authors showed that cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline), an intermediate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, decreases edema formation and blood-brain barrier disruption following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study the authors investigate whether CDP-choline protects hippocampal neurons after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI in adult rats. METHODS: After adult male Sprague-Dawley rats had been anesthetized with halothane, a moderate-grade TBI was induced with the aid of a CCI device set at a velocity of 3 m/second, creating a 2-mm deformation. Sham-operated rats, which underwent craniectomy without impact served as controls. The CDP-choline (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) or saline was injected into the animals twice (once immediately postinjury and once 6 hours postinjury). Seven days after the injury, the rats were neurologically evaluated and killed, and the number of hippocampal neurons was estimated by examining thionine-stained brain sections. By 7 days postinjury, there was a significant amount of neuronal death in the ipsilateral hippocampus in the CA2 (by 53 +/- 7%, p < 0.05) and CA3 (by 59 +/- 9%, p < 0.05) regions and a contusion (volume 34 +/- 8 mm3) in the ipsilateral cortex compared with sham-operated control animals. Rats subjected to TBI also displayed severe neurological deficit at 7 days postinjury. Treating rats with CDP-choline (200 and 400 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly prevented TBI-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, decreased cortical contusion volume, and improved neurological recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with CDP-choline decreased brain damage following TBI.

New brain cells
The memory switch?
Cholinesterase inhibitors
Anti-muscarinics/dumb-drug euphoria
Cytidine (5')-diphosphocholine supplementation and memory

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family