D1 agonist dihydrexidine releases acetylcholine
and improves cognitive performance in rats

Steele TD, Hodges DB Jr, Levesque TR, Locke KW.
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals Inc.,
Lexington, Massachusetts 02173, USA.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Oct;58(2):477-83.


Dihydrexidine is a selective, full-efficacy dopamine D1 receptor agonist that has displayed therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease by reversing motor deficits of MPTP-treated monkeys. The present study monitored the effects of dihydrexidine on acetylcholine release in rat brain by using in vivo microdialysis. Moderate doses of dihydrexidine [3 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (I.P.)] elevated extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine by 40-60% in rat striatum; higher doses did not significantly alter acetylcholine release. SCH 23390 blocked the dihydrexidine-induced increase, indicating a D1 receptor-mediated action. A more robust stimulatory effect of dihydrexidine on acetylcholine release was observed in prefrontal cortex (to 300% of basal output) than in striatum. Dihydrexidine was also evaluated in a passive avoidance procedure in rats to determine if its neurochemical effects translated into cognition-enhancing activity; in this assay, dihydrexidine (0.3 mg/kg, I.P.) significantly improved the scopolamine-induced deficits. The results of these studies suggest that the acetylcholine-releasing properties of dihydrexidine and other D1 agonists may underlie their cognition-enhancing activity and thus may have clinical value in the treatment of dementia.

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Cholinesterase inhibitors
Anti-muscarinics/dumb-drug euphoria

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BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
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The Responsible Parent's Guide
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