Ghrelin increases anxiety-like behavior
and memory retention in rats

Carlini VP, Monzon ME, Varas MM, Cragnolini AB,
Schioth HB, Scimonelli TN, de Barioglio SR.
Departamento de Farmacologia,
Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas,
Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria,
Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5016 Cordoba, Argentina.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Dec 20;299(5):739-43.


Ghrelin is a peptide found in the hypothalamus and stomach that stimulates food intake and whose circulating concentrations are affected by nutritional state. Very little is known about other central behavioral effects of ghrelin, and thus, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on anxiety and memory retention. The peptide was injected intracerebroventricularly in rats and we performed open-field, plus-maze, and step-down tests (inhibitory avoidance). The administration of ghrelin increased freezing in the open field and decreased the number of entries into the open spaces and the time spent on the open arms in the plus-maze, indicating an anxiogenic effect. Moreover, the peptide increased in a dose-dependent manner the latency time in the step-down test. A rapid and prolonged increase in food intake was also observed. Our results indicate that ghrelin induces anxiogenesis in rats. Moreover, we show for the first time that ghrelin increases memory retention, suggesting that the peptide may influence processes in the hippocampus.

New brain cells
The memory switch?
Dumb-drug euphoria
Growing new brain cells

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family