Huperzine A, a nootropic alkaloid, inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced current in rat dissociated hippocampal neurons
Zhang JM, Hu GY.
State Key Laboratory of Drug Research,
Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica,
Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
294 Tai-Yuan Road, 200031, Shanghai, PR China.
ABSTRACTHuperzine A, a nootropic alkaloid isolated from a Chinese herb, has been proposed as one of the most promising agents to treat Alzheimer's disease. Recently, the agent was found to inhibit the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rat cerebral cortex in addition to causing an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying NMDA receptor inhibition were investigated using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in CA1 pyramidal neurons acutely dissociated from rat hippocampus. Huperzine A reversibly inhibited the NMDA-induced current (IC(50)=126 microM, Hill coefficient=0.92), whereas it had no effect on the current induced by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate or kainate. The effect was non-competitive, and showed neither 'voltage-dependency', nor 'use-dependency'. The IC(50) values of huperzine A were neither altered by changing the concentrations of glycine (2-0.2 microM) and pH (7.4-6.7) in the external solution, nor by addition of Zn(2+) (5 microM) and dithiothreitol (5 mM) to the external solution. However, addition of spermine (200 microM) to the external solution caused a parallel shift to the right of the huperzine A concentration-response curve.From these we suggest that huperzine A acts as a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptors, via a competitive interaction with one of the polyamine binding sites. The potential relevance of NMDA receptor antagonist activity of huperzine A to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is discussed.Piracetam
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