Neuroprotection by a novel brain permeable iron chelator, VK-28, against 6-hydroxydopamine lession in rats
Shachar DB, Kahana N, Kampel V,
Warshawsky A, Youdim MB.
Laboratory of Psychobiology Department of Psychiatry,
Technion-Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel.
Neuropharmacology. 2004 Feb;46(2):254-63.


Significant increase in iron occurs in the substantia nigra pars compacta of Parkinsonian subjects, and in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treated rats and monkeys. This increase in iron has been attributed to its release from ferritin and is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and the onset of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Several iron chelators with hydroxyquinoline backbone were synthesized and their ability to inhibit basal as well as iron-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was examined. The neuroprotective potential of the brain permeable iron chelator, VK-28 (5-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ylmethyl]-quinoline-8-ol), injected either intraventricularly (ICV) or intraperitoneally (IP), to 6-OHDA lesioned rats was investigated. VK-28 inhibited both basal and Fe/ascorbate induced mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, with an IC(50) (12.7 microM) value comparable to that of the prototype iron chelator, desferal, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. At an ICV pretreatment dose as low as 1 microg, VK-28 was able to completely protect against ICV 6-OHDA (250 microg) induced striatal dopaminergic lesion, as measured by dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) levels. IP injection of rats with VK-28 (1 and 5 mg/kg) daily for 10 and 7 days, respectively, demonstrated significant neuroprotection against ICV 6-OHDA at the higher dose, with 68% protection against loss of dopamine at 5mg/kg dosage of VK-28. The present study is the first to show neuroprotection with a brain permeable iron chelator. The latter can have implications for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich ataxia, aceruloplasminemia, Hallervorden Spatz syndrome) where abnormal iron accumulation in the brain is thought to be associated with the degenerative processes.

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